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Codage, programmation, algorithmie à l’école: le cadrage institutionnel

Najat Vallaud-Belkacem : « Les nouveaux programmes, qui seront appliqués à la rentrée 2016, prévoient de renforcer les acquisitions dans le domaine de l’apprentissage du code (programmation informatique, algorithmique…). […] Cela me paraît fondamental, à la fois pour comprendre et maîtriser notre environnement numérique, et parce que le codage favorise la logique, l’ordonnancement de la pensée. »

 « A partir de la rentrée 2016, le socle commun s’articulera en cinq domaines de formation définissant les connaissances et les compétences qui doivent être acquises à l’issue de la scolarité obligatoire et dont l’apprentissage du Code via l’algorithmie et la robotique est transversal :

  • les langages pour penser et communiquer ;
  • les méthodes et outils pour apprendre ;
  • la formation de la personne et du citoyen ;
  • les systèmes naturels et les systèmes techniques ;
  • les représentations du monde et l’activité humaine.

Cycle 2 :

  • Réaliser des déplacements dans l’espace et les coder pour qu’un autre élève puisse les reproduire.
  • Produire des représentations d’un espace restreint et s’en servir pour communiquer des positions.
  • Programmer les déplacements d’un robot ou ceux d’un personnage sur un écran.

« Mettre en oeuvre un algorithme de calcul posé pour l’addition, la soustraction, la multiplication »
« Au CP, la représentation des lieux et le codage des déplacements se situent dans la classe ou dans l’école, puis dans le quartier proche, et au CE2 dans un quartier étendu ou le village. Dès le CE1, les élèves peuvent coder des déplacements à l’aide d’un logiciel de programmation adapté, ce qui les amènera au CE2 à la compréhension, et la production d’algorithmes simples. »

Cycle 3 :

  • Pratiquer des langages
  • Exploiter un document constitué de divers supports (texte, schéma, graphique, tableau, algorithme simple).
  • Utiliser différents modes de représentation formalisés (schéma, dessin, croquis, tableau, graphique, texte).
  • Expliquer un phénomène à l’oral et à l’écrit.

 « Les élèves apprennent à connaître l’organisation d’un environnement numérique. Ils décrivent un système technique par ses composants et leurs relations. Les élèves découvrent l’algorithme en utilisant des logiciels d’applications visuelles et ludiques. Ils exploitent les moyens informatiques en pratiquant le travail collaboratif. Les élèves maitrisent le fonctionnement de logiciels usuels et s’approprient leur fonctionnement.

Une initiation à la programmation est faite à l’occasion notamment d’activités de repérage ou de déplacement (programmer les déplacements d’un robot ou ceux d’un personnage sur un écran), ou d’activités géométriques (construction de figures simples ou de figures composées de figures simples). 

Matériaux et Objets techniques
Le stockage des données, notions d’algorithmes, les objets programmables.
Usage de logiciels usuels.
Les élèves découvrent l’algorithme en utilisant des logiciels d’applications visuelles et ludiques.»

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